Revered by some as the Arab Garibaldi, maligned by others as an intriguer and opportunist, Fawzi al-Qawuqji manned the ramparts of Arab history for four decades. In the aftermath of the fighting, the Druze began to consolidate their ties with the victorious Zionists. Parsons's great achievement is to show the fuller picture of a man who is primarily regarded as a failure in battle and, by extension, a failure to the Arab nationalist cause. Contrary to those who see the absence of refugee camps as a determining factor in the dilution of the national identity of the refugees within that of the host country, we will see that the relationship between national identity and type of place of residence is very weak and, on the contrary, the camps created rather a new much more urban identity than a national one. The book is divided into four chapters, preceded by a preface, glossary and introductory background on the Druze, their history, religion and culture, followed by an Epilogue and Conclusion. A remarkably evenhanded biography of an important player in Arab history that doubles as a crucial scholarly reinterpretation of the rise and fall of Arab nationalism. Parsons shows us that the truth was more complex: Although he doubtless made some strategic mistakes, he never gave up fighting for Arab independence and unity, even as those ideals were undermined by powers inside and outside the Arab world.
He found himself in particular places, made particular choices, and even fought particular battles, largely as a result of personal circumstances. Register a Free 1 month Trial Account. The Druze disposition varied according to their proximity to Jewish centres. As early as August 1949, the Tarif family, members of which have traditionally served, and serve today, as the Shaykh al-Aql or chief religious leader of the Palestinian Druze, began negotiating a separate Druze communal status with the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs p. Intelligence reports are often unreliable as sources of factual information because informers tend to present information in a way that reflects what they think the recipient wants to hear, This is due to the fact that informers are usually paid for their information. Furthermore, I will be proposing an alternative method for analysing these Palestinian camp-spaces, as well as suggesting new tools for designing and creating the necessary spatial interventions that can enhance the self-determination of refugees and the potential of their camp-spaces to offer resistance. The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the the druze between palestine and israel 1947 49 parsons laila gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging.
To a large extent, therefore, the story told here necessarily reflects the Israeli perspective on the war and on the role of the Druze in it. His ties to the Druze were strong enough that he was chosen to go to Syria in 1947 to try and recruit their support, unsuccessfully as it turned out, for the Palestinian nationalist cause. The Commander is a book as much for the lay reader as for the historian of Palestine. Nearly one-fifth of the total population, composing about 1. Based on Israeli military and political documents, this book looks at the origins of the Druze's unique status in Israeli society by telling the story of the military and political alliance that emerged between the Druze and the Jewish army in the 1948 war. As a further caveat, I should mention that portions of the historical narrative are based on Israeli intelligence reports that themselves derive from information given by Druze informers.
By way of comparison, the article highlights the Druze's acceptance of a unique communal relationship to the Zionist leadership and later, to the state of Israel. Palestinian Christians' approach to local politics, even in the face of interreligious conflict, allowed them to maintain far better relations with Muslims than Arab Christians in some neighboring Arab countries. The Jewish community is divided into secular, traditional and religious groups,3 the latter containing a well defined Ultra-Orthodox camp. Finally, some of the memoirs of participants in the events described have been written only recently. In these meetings they received a comprehensive sketch of developments within the community in Palestine, Syria and Lebanon. Copyright information Cite this chapter as: Parsons L.
In 1947, Qawuqji made a daring escape from Allied-occupied Berlin, and sought once again to shape his region's history. Lina Kassem 2005, 112 notes that it is not uncommon to see Israeli flags flying in Druze villages, a very rare occurrence in Muslim and Christian areas. Contents: Introduction: Some Background on the Druze -- The Druze and the Jews in Mandatory Palestine, 1917-1947 -- The Druze and the Jews in the Civil War, November 1947-May 1948 -- A Strengthening of Ties, May-September 1948 -- The Druze in the New State, July-October 1948 -- Epilogue: The Druze and the State in the Immediate Aftermath of the War, November 1948-July 1949. In return they have reaped all the very tangible benefits that come from military service like bank mortgages but have also earned the enmity of the majority Arab Muslim population. The continuing restrictions concerning access to documentary materials in Arab state archives make this inevitable. The E-mail message field is required. The Palestinian Druze are the only Israeli Arabs who are conscripted into the Israeli army today.
As the fighting spread, the villages of Galilee came around one by one, though Yanuh and Jathth did resist the Israeli armies in circumstances that make for very interesting reading pp. It was the Palestinian uprising of 1936-39 that saw the beginning of serious ties between Palestinian Druze, criticized and eventually attacked by the Sunni nationalists for their neutrality in that struggle, and the Jews. A decade later, he re-appeared in Palestine, where he helped direct the Arab revolt of 1936. Also covered in this chapter is the battle of Yanuh, in which the Druze unit found themselves fighting against fellow Druze, and its aftermath. Recognizing his unique place within many of the earliest Arab nationalist efforts is critical in understanding the shape of the modern Middle East. His is a story of ambiguities, contradictions, oversized ambitions and false hopes--in many regards a life perfectly suited to illustrate the Arab predicament in the first half of the 20th century.
Based on Israeli military and political documents, this book looks at the origins of the Druze's unique status in Israeli society by telling the story of the military and political alliance that emerged between the Druze and the Jewish army in the 1948 war. Where I have had doubts about the reliability of a specific piece of factual information I have said so. This is a fascinating biography. Series Title: Responsibility: Laila Parsons. Parsons has presented not only evocative descriptions of al-Qawuqji's life and times, but also compelling arguments to dispel some prevailing myths. One carrot the Zionists were able to hold out to them was the promise of independent communal status. Well-researched, presenting and analyzing many sources on this essential period of Arab history which were not previously available in English, The Commander is a lively read that is not short of depth nor contemporary importance.
A decade later, he reappeared in Palestine, where he helped direct the Arab Revolt of 1936. However, the general population figures for the Druze are mainly my own, from around 1985, and now considerably out of date. Israel is a diverse country. Given that the writing of history is a dialogue between the historian and her sources, the reader must, when reading this article, bear that imbalance in mind. The Commander is more than a conventional biography; Qawuqji's epic is embedded in broader narratives, which take us to the heart of the modern Arab Middle East.
In the 1920s, he mastered the arts of insurgency and helped lead a massive uprising against the French authorities in Syria. Includes three tables of data; contains nine references and two appendixes about textbook censorship and descriptions of the textbooks examined. Druze between Palestine and Israel, 1947-49. Strangely enough we are given no information about Qawuqji at all. Some Bedouin Arabs also serve, along with a few Christians and the tiny non-Arab Muslim Circassian community, but the Druze alone serve as an Arabic-speaking unit. As a young officer in the Ottoman Army, he fought the British in the First World War, and won an Iron Cross.