The conversation can now begin at levels that are deeper than theories, that respect the exceedingly complex and contradictory phenomenon of human nature and political realities of sexual violence in war. Maria Eriksson Baaz and Maria Stern, Zed Books, London and New York, 2013, 168pp. This new understanding of sexual violence in conflict offered hope that it could be both prevented and stopped and so has, for at least the past decade, become the overriding interpretation of rape in war, at least officially, amongst humanitarians, academics, and policymakers alike. The strategic use of rape is often presented as somehow self-explanatory through its implied universalized storyline of gender and warring. Finally, the socialization of officers, combined with problematic incentive structures, undercuts efforts to end the de facto tolerance of sexual abuse by many officers. They argue persuasively that the degree to which rape is a strategy or tool of war is highly dependent on the specific context; that military institutions often in fact, usually fall short of the ideals of hierarchy, discipline, and control they desire, and that widespread sexual violence can often indicate a collapse in military discipline and control p.
This chapter focuses on the ways women are framed in genocide studies as well as in media narratives of genocide. Which histories and experiences, what places and contexts are the most important to consider, and how does one best make such decisions? Therefore, rape in conflict settings appears to be legitimised, and ultimately deemed inevitable. We are especially indebted to the soldiers and officers of the Congolese armed forces, who generously shared their experiences and thoughts with us. Despite the often horrific violences it documents, the prevailing and now familiar story of wartime rape is a story that fills us with hope. Importantly, we query the assumptions or ontologies that underpin this understanding of sexual violence as gendered instead of sexed and ask who and what is silenced or dehumanized? However, while we unpack dominant understandings rather than provide explanations for why rape takes place , we also invite the reader to consider some alternative understandings of sexual violence. Additionally, her articles have appeared in leading journals, including International Studies Quarterly, African Affairs, Journal of International Relations and Development, Journal of Modern African Studies and African Security.
Based in Uppsala, Sweden, the Institute is dedicated to providing timely, critical and alternative research and analysis of Africa and to cooperating with African researchers. In this provocative but much-needed book, Eriksson Baaz and Stern challenge the dominant understandings of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings. Perceptions, prescriptions, problems in the Congo and beyond Female soldiers in Sierra Leone: Sex, security, and post-conflict development - 24 Hours access. There is increasing awareness of conflict-re- lated sexual violence against both men and women Eriksson-Baaz and Stern 2013;Ganzevoort and Sremac 2016. Addressing these cases, the two books under review represent the state of the art in gender and security research, while deconstructing its policy-advocacy-research nexus.
Margot Wallström, cited in Crossette 2010 Finally, the international community has recognized conflict-related sexual violence as an important global security problem. This singular focus on sexual violence has been reflected in the number. She has contributed to several edited volumes, such as the International Handbook on African Security 2012 , and has written numerous policy reports. This unobtrusive method reveals that around 13 percent of the Sri Lankan population has personally experienced sexual assault during the war—a prevalence ten times higher than elicited by direct questioning. Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? Yet this success has reinforced paradigmatic knowledge of that country and of women in sub-Saharan Africa who have long been assigned the role of Othered, silent suffering victim. Media, and foreign correspondents in particular, play an important role in shaping the popular and political context in which high-level international decisions are made.
Specifically, we ask how and why criminal law constitutes the ultimately meaningful response to such violence. One shocking facet that isn't adequately defined or explored is the context in which war-time rape occurs - not all conflicts are created equal context matters! After years of silence and neglect, the ills of rape in war are finally being named. Hence, in this book, we critically engage with dominant understandings of, as well as policy solutions aimed at redressing, sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, foreign correspondents, working in tandem with policy and academic reports, have drawn much needed attention to the issue of rape as a gendered weapon of war. Wartime sexual violence is especially egregious precisely because it is a sexual form of violence that causes particular harms.
Though the occurrence of rape in the conduct of war is by no means historically new, research into its causes and functions has only really begun in the past couple of decades. Contemporary research focuses more on victims' multifaceted and heterogeneous experiences and lives, including critical research on victims as witnesses in criminal courts Henry 2011. In an analysis on whether rape can be seen in a broader way than just rape being committed as a direct order, the authors show us that strategy in this instance can mean different things: condoning, and encouragement of rape, for example, can also be seen as strategic approaches to rape. Perceptions, Prescriptions, Problems in the Congo and Beyond Maria Eriksson Baaz and Maria Stern Book Review Until very recently, sexual violence has been viewed as an unfortunate but unavoidable side-effect of war; rarely discussed and even less frequently prosecuted. Na príklade vlastného výskumu s vojakmi a vojenkami v Kongu, z ktorých mnohí a mnohé páchali aj sexuálne násilie, autorky uvádzajú aj iné príčiny znásilnení - utrpenie, frustrácia a zlosť z katastrofálnych životných podmienok bojovníkov a bojovníčiek vrátane ich rodín, ktorí a ktoré sa sami cítia byť obeťami.
In this provocative but much-needed book, Eriksson Baaz and Stern challenge the dominant understandings of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings. Additionally, her articles have appeared in leading journals, including African Affairs, Alternatives, International Journal of Peace Studies, International Political Sociology, International Studies Quarterly, Journal of International Relations and Development, Journal of Modern African Studies, Review of International Studies and Security Dialogue. We are grateful for this support. A much-anticipated book by two acknowledged experts in the field dealing with an issue that has become an increasingly important security and legal topic. This division, I suggest, closes down space for recognising how war is also enacted within private spaces. She has also contributed to several edited volumes, such as the International Handbook on African Security 2012 , and has written numerous policy reports. Victims, out of feelings of shame or fear, underreport this form of violence.
Based on in-depth interviews with soldiers in the Congolese armed forces, this article analyses the discursive strategies male soldiers employ in relation to the feminization of the army. This is a position argued by other genocide scholars such as Adam Jones, who seeks to use gender analysis to explore the experiences of both women and men in conflict scenarios. The Sexed story, which the authors seek to dispel, extorts the notion that rape is seen as integral to war, as war is enacted and fought by men and men are helpless subjects of their biologically-driven needs and therefore cannot be held responsible for their actions. This chapter concentrates not only on these questions but also on what motivates people—primarily but not exclusively men—to resort to such violence and on what the consequences turn out to be. We have much to learn from this extraordinary book.
We also thank Mikela Lundahl, Stina Hansson, Véronique Pin-Fat, Kaia Stern, Mats Utas, Judith Verweijen, Marysia Zalewski and members of the Global Gender Studies research group at the School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg. Newly recognised as a threat to global peace and security, sexual violence in conflict is now a fixed item on international security agendas. In the article, the questions are analyzed based on empirical study in Uganda. The authors examine the prominence given to sexual violence and indicate the problems associated with isolating sexual violence from other forms of violence in conflict settings. Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? Here, we first outline the moves the book makes in broad strokes. Eriksson Baaz and Stern put their finger precisely on the problems with, and limitations of, existing analyses of sexual violence as a tool war; in doing so, they open up space for novel thinking about the intersections of race, neo-colonial politics, gender, militarization, and violence. Stern 1934—2012 Svante Eriksson 1944—1995 Introduction It has to be understood that this is a security problem, not just men behaving like men.