Science and certainty kirk john to. Science & certainty 2019-03-01

Science and certainty kirk john to Rating: 8,4/10 387 reviews

Science & certainty (eBook, 2007) [cleanpowerfinance.com]

science and certainty kirk john to

If our imaginary observer had concluded that this particular universe was going nowhere, that it was destined simply to go on forever as a more and more rarefied cloud of hydrogen and helium with temperature asymptotically approaching absolute zero 0° K they would have been wrong, because great changes were already in train. Recombination of quarks with antiquarks, and electrons with positrons, to yield once again radiant energy in the form of gamma-ray photons would also occur, and so interconversion between particles and radiation was going on simultaneously in both directions. By reactions involving additional protons or neutrons virtually all the deuterons were then converted to nuclei of Helium-4 the common isotope of helium , consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. How did the cosmos, and our own special part of it, come to be? The author also includes a historical and philosophical background to a number of environmental issues and argues that it is only through science that we can hope to solve these problems. It also examines the tension that can exist between scientific and religious belief systems. The energy of photons is, as we shall see in chapter 3, inversely proportional to their wavelength, so as the average wavelength of the radiation photons increased due to the expansion of space, their energy decreased. Once formed, the protons and neutrons underwent continual rapid interconversion by the processes: neutron + positron proton + electron Initially these processes went equally rapidly in either direction but with further cooling of the universe the more-energy-demanding conversion of the proton to the slightly heavier neutron became less favoured and the composition of the nucleon mix gradually shifted towards proton dominance.

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Science and Certainty by John T.O. Kirk

science and certainty kirk john to

Unlike the neutrinos, however, they can still be detected all around us in space, but by now cosmic expansion has stretched them out so much that we have to look in the microwave region of the spectrum at wavelengths of about 1 mm Fig. What can be said about the physical basis of consciousness? The stretching of space stretched out the waves, and thus increased the wavelength of the radiation. What can science tell or not tell us about the nature and origin of physical and biological reality? In reality there is no such thing as empty space. The selection of topics presents us with a palate which all thoughtful readers will appreciate and find engaging and will conclude, I am confident, that it is a book they are pleased they have read. The author also includes a historical and philosophical background to a number of environmental issues and argues that it is only through science that we can hope to solve these problems. Initially, mainly nuclei of deuterium the heavy isotope of hydrogen consisting of one proton and one neutron, known as deuterons, were formed.

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Science & certainty (eBook, 2007) [cleanpowerfinance.com]

science and certainty kirk john to

The most powerful particle accelerators constructed to date have given us information on particle behaviour at the energies that would have existed in the universe at t~1 microsecond, although not at the even higher temperatures that would have prevailed earlier. Recent estimates seem to be zeroing in on something close to 13. What can we say about the essential nature of the physical world? Over the next ~370 000 years the universe continued its expansion and associated cooling, but for most of this time was hot enough to remain as a plasma, a mixture of free nuclei and free electrons. Within 3—4 minutes of the Big Bang, it seems that the universe had settled down to a stable nuclear composition of about 76% hydrogen a single proton being a hydrogen nucleus and 24% helium, with just traces of deuterium 0. They did interact, as indicated above, in the very early universe, only because of the enormous density that existed at the time. This crucial transition in the history of the universe is referred to as recombination. The temperature at the centre of the contracting globule of gas depended on the total mass of the globule: the greater the mass the higher the central temperature.

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Science and Certainty by John TO Kirk by John TO Kirk

science and certainty kirk john to

How did the cosmos, and our own special part of it, come to be? This book will appeal to popular science readers, those with an interest in the environment and the implications of science for the meaning of human existence, as well as students of environmental studies, philosophy, ethics and theology. These cold clouds of hydrogen and helium were destined to become the galaxies. What can we say about the essential nature of the physical world? For example, it has been shown that when neutral K mesons decay, the process is not quite symmetric and leads to an excess of 1 part in 500 of matter over antimatter in the decay products. The book addresses why certain areas of science cause concern to many people today — in particular, those which seem to have implications for the meaning of human existence, and for our significance on this planet and in the universe as a whole. Some speculations start off with an empty universe and consider whether, with the help of some rather bizarre physics to push matters along, the whole thing might have started off as a quantum fluctuation in the vacuum. What can science tell or not tell us about the nature and origin of physical and biological reality? How did the world come to be the way it is? The book How did the cosmos, and our own special part of it, come to be? If you dip your toes into the philosophy of science, one of the first nibbles you'll get is the idea that scientific knowledge is always considered to be tentative aka uncertain , although some knowledge is much less tentative than others.

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Science and Certainty by John T.O. Kirk

science and certainty kirk john to

These fluctuations — no greater than 1 part in 100 000 — have been mapped in great detail by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe aboard a satellite 1. Hydrogen atoms were combining with each other to form molecular hydrogen H2. The idea of certainty may be developed there. This book will appeal to popular science readers, those with an interest in the environment and the implications of science for the meaning of human existence, as well as students of environmental studies, philosophy, ethics and theology. The energy as emissivity in watts m—2 mm—1 of this left-over radiation from the Big Bang is here plotted as a function of wavelength in mm. There is, however, an unfortunate tendency to refer to hypotheses that start with the vacuum, as explaining the creation of the universe ex nihilo, i.

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Science & certainty (eBook, 2007) [cleanpowerfinance.com]

science and certainty kirk john to

As the mass became more concentrated, the contraction accelerated. The fluctuations in density are attributed to sound-waves in the plasma which, like sound-waves in air, created alternately compressed and rarefied regions. What can we say about the essential nature of the physical world? What can be said about the physical basis of consciousness? How, on one otherwise unremarkable star, did a planet form with equable temperatures, ample liquid water and an atmosphere of benign gases? This is sometimes referred to as the Cosmic Dark Age. These developed into globules of gas much smaller than the gas cloud as a whole, but large enough so that by their own inherent gravitational attraction they began to contract in upon themselves. The very rapid expansion would smooth out the distribution of energy.

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Science and Certainty by John T.O. Kirk

science and certainty kirk john to

Science and Certainty offers an account of what science does, in fact, ask us to believe about the most fundamental aspects of reality and, therefore, the implications of accepting the scientific worldview. Science and Certainty clears away the many misunderstandings surrounding these questions. Science and Certainty offers an account of what science does, in fact, ask us to believe about the most fundamental aspects of reality and, therefore, the implications of accepting the scientific world view. It also examines the tension that can exist between scientific and religious belief systems. Provided the mass of gas was at least 8% of the mass of the Sun, by the time gravitational collapse was complete the temperature at the centre would be not less than 10 million K. For most of our journey backwards the universe remains on average a very cold place, but as we get near to the beginning and we have compressed our radiation into a much smaller space, the temperature of the universe begins to rise steeply. It also examines the tension that can exist between scientific and religious belief systems.

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Science & certainty (eBook, 2007) [cleanpowerfinance.com]

science and certainty kirk john to

I know much less about cosmology, and found that chapter to be quite useful. What can science tell or not tell us about the nature and origin of physical and biological reality? The more compressed regions of the plasma had a higher temperature, and so glowed more brightly. Science and Certainty offers an account of what science does, in fact, ask us to believe about the most fundamental aspects of reality and, therefore, the implications of accepting the scientific world view. This works out to be about 14 billion years before the present. What can be said about the physical basis of consciousness? What can be said about the physical basis of consciousness? Science and Certainty clears away the many misunderstandings surrounding these questions. The radiation photons remaining from the Big Bang then became, like the neutrinos before them, decoupled from the rest of the universe, i. High temperatures can be equated to high energies in electron-volts of any particle existing at those temperatures; experimental studies by particle physicists during the last 100 years have provided a great deal of information on how subatomic particles behave at very high energies.

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Science and Certainty by John TO Kirk (ebook)

science and certainty kirk john to

There was very little else. The chapter on evolution exposed the weakness of trying to cram an entire discipline into a single chapter -- at least, it appeared weak when I know a bit about the topic. Having dipped into several chapters, I find them uniformly informative and well-written if not very well illustrated , but having nothing to do with certainty. In addition to this very limited range compared to the present of atomic nuclei, the universe at this stage ~4 minutes still contained vast numbers of photons ~3 billion per nucleon , neutrinos and antineutrinos which had ceased to interact with anything else, and free electrons exactly equivalent in number to the free or combined protons. The chapter on evolution exposed the weakness of trying to cram an entire discipline into a single If you dip your toes into the philosophy of science, one of the first nibbles you'll get is the idea that scientific knowledge is always considered to be tentative aka uncertain , although some knowledge is much less tentative than others. Why has it not simply recombined with the antimatter, leaving a universe filled only with radiation? This book will appeal to popular science readers, those with an interest in the environment and the implications of science for the meaning of human existence, as well as students of environmental studies, philosophy, ethics and theology.

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