Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: Practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence. Focused deterrence strategies represent a relatively new police-led approach that draws upon community problem-solving concepts and uses a blended approach to address gang violence problems. A total of 33 publications covering 43 quasi-experimental studies were identified as eligible. In contrast, the Latin Kings gang continued its operations because the gang's prison leaders quickly appointed new leadership. The initiative builds on a similar effort developed in High Point, North Carolina, and represents an extension of pulling levers that was originally developed in Boston.
Greenwood, Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles, Santa Monica, Calif. The network does reveal a relational setting that supports the popular Crips versus Bloods rivalry, with intercoalition conflicts and intracoalition alliances accounting for the vast majority of intergang relations. Marquette Law Review, 92 4 651-666 Meares, T. This document replaces the original version in which Tables 3. Greenwood, Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles. Despite the size of meetings expanding over time, the core of active affiliates has only doubled and remains comprised of researchers. The spillover effects of focused deterrence on gang violence.
When examining larger geographic scales and a broader array of interventions, spatial displacement is still a fairly unlikely occurrence. Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. Growth curve regression models were used to analyze gun violence trends for treated gangs relative to comparison gangs. . A nonrandomized quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the gun violence reduction effects of focused deterrence strategies on directly treated gangs and vicariously treated gangs.
However, most agencies make limited use of proactive strategies to reduce gun crime, and there are substantial gaps in the enforcement of many gun laws. Attention felons: Evaluating project safe neighborhoods in Chicago. Police Quarterly, 9 1 20-46 Braga, A A. The results from the law enforcement components were surprisingly good, even though the intervention did not proceed exactly as planned. These estimates suggest that monitoring ammunition transactions may help reduce the supply of ammunition to criminals and the frequency of injuries from felonious gun assaults. That left us with 20 additional publications to examine for potential inclusion in a meta-analysis.
Louis might be refined through further emphasis on formalized problem solving, high-risk groups, hot spot locations, community participation, and project maintenance. Some of these national programmes include Project Safe Neighborhoods and the Strategic Alternatives to Community Safety Initiative Dalton, 2002. They also explore the impact that gang formation has on local patterns of crime. Research Report National Institute of Justice. Also available in print form. Looking at larger neighborhoods, we were able to show that distance traveled from home follows a power-law distribution, and the direction of displacement, i. Diverse data sources and methodologies have been used to study street gangs' networks.
Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. A variety of promising supply-side measures are available, and some have been tried. It was also found that the more chronic the gang problem, the more effective gang activity suppression approaches. Quasi-experimental evaluations in Boston Braga et al. Coyotes and wolves organize themselves around a den site and mark their territory to distinguish their claimed region. Jack Riley, Greg Ridgeway, Clifford A. To minimize such effects, actors often will partition the system into geographic territories.
The case against this focus follows from the belief that guns in America are so readily available, and from such a variety of sources, that efforts to restrict the supply are futile. Using violent crime data, I show that a spike in violent crime took place in the first month after the arrest of the 22 Boys gang leader. In this chapter we detail the prevalence of, factors related to, and the prevention and intervention of adolescent homicides for offenders ages 12—17 years. This chapter examines the limits of traditional suppression approaches to gang violence. Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing.
Using data on male deportable aliens released from a local jail, the study sought to test the ubiquitous claim that they pose a high risk of recidivism. Drawing upon 140 in-depth interviews with gun offenders detained in Los Angeles County jails, this article examines legal and extra-legal factors that influence illegal gun possession. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 123- 135. Our updated examination of the effects of focused deterrence strategies on crime followed the systematic review protocols and conventions of the Campbell Collaboration. This chapter presents an overview of the micro-level processes inherent to the street gang. It represented an innovative partnership between researchers and practitioners to assess the city's youth homicide problem and implement an intervention designed to have a substantial near-term impact on the problem. At the methodological level, the integration of geography and social network contexts are framed within a new interdisciplinary field: visual analytics, in which three major application-oriented subfields data exploration, decision-making, and predictive analysis are used to organize discussion.
This systematic literature review and meta-analysis of evaluation studies on street gang control strategies focused on articles and reports from multiple bibliographic databases. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38 3 195-226 Braga, A. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 36 is March 18, 2015. It is plausible that the diffusion of benefit from some interventions may be greater than for others; therefore, subgroup analysis will be performed for the different intervention strategies identified in the review. Justice Quarterly, 23 2 214-231 Meares, T.
Using several qualitative data sources, I show that the arrest of the 22 Boys gang leader temporarily led to the gang's withdrawal from its territory, which spurred violent aggression from rival gangs in adjacent territories. The intervention brings law enforcement, social services, and community members together to meet with members of violent street groups at program call-ins. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, St. The results can potentially contribute to the formulation of effective strategy to manage gang violence and allocate law enforcement resources to gang conflicts that are likely to escalate. In the absence of significant social unrest, conflict, or war, adolescent homicides should be unusual events; however, as with homicides in general, the youth homicide rate in the United States far exceeds that of any other modern industrial nation. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions.