John Collyer; Northamptonshire with 4 grammar writers each, in places like Northampton and Moulton, where William Chown wrote his grammar; and Lincolnshire with another 4 authors in, for instance, Lincoln and Grantham, from which John Clarke of Grantham received his name. Their grammar was first compiled by James Gough, then revised by John Gough title page, 1754. Based on a large-scale analysis of precept and usage data, this study reassesses the alleged influence of late eighteenth-century normative works on language usage. For instance, displays the search for authors who are male field 'gender' , teachers field 'occupation', subfield 'education' , and born in England field 'place of birth', subfield 'country'. Besides the geographical identification, it is hoped that these findings may be further investigated with a view to identifying differences in the nature of the English grammar, for instance descriptive vs. Eyres printed at least one book by tutors such as Joseph Priestley, John Aikin and John Enfield, even after the academy moved to Manchester in 1783 : 117. It also discusses major structural aspects of nineteenth-century English, such as nouns, verbs and adjectives, and Germanic vs.
The Library 4 6th series : 99-134. Chicago: Privately printed for the author by the Blakely Press. This volume brings together work from international experts on the historiography of English grammar writing who deal with a variety of topics grouped into three overlapping sections: I. John Collet Ryland of Bourton-on-the-Water , the south-west county of Dorset e. Age, Place of Residence PoR , Acquaintances, Other writings. Grammar Wars: Language as Cultural Battlefield in 17th- and 18th-Century England. The former includes England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.
The contributions present a view of the grammarians as individuals with or without specific qualifications for undertaking what they did, with their own ideas on teaching methodology, and as writers ultimately engaged in the common aim presenting practical grammars of English to the general public. A New Historical Geography of England after 1600. It was our aim, too, to provide a more detailed description of the primary sources that led to the standardisation process by compiling in a single data source full information documented in earlier bibliographies, indexes and collections. Notes As far as elocutionists are concerned, see, in particular, Beal , on Thomas Spence and John Walker; and Sturiale , on William Perry. He first opened a school for boys in Shrewsbury, in his home county, in 1775, but soon he moved to south-west Wales, to Carmarthen, to head the academy maintained by the Presbyterian Fund.
We had been able to identify 234 authors ca. The contributions present a view of the grammarians as individuals with or without specific qualifications for undertaking what they did, with their own ideas on teaching methodology, and as writers ultimately engaged in the common aim presenting practical grammars of English to the general public. The paper sets out a number of criteria that have to be met for letters to be suitable for sociolinguistic analysis. Noteworthy is as well the fact that all the authors who lived in the county of Northumberland had at least one of their works printed locally see. Bei einer missbräuchlichen Weitergabe des eBooks an Dritte ist eine Rückverfolgung an die Quelle möglich. However, several interesting letters written by emigrants or other partially-schooled encoders have already been included, as these may have undoubted dialectological value. Standard English: The Widening Debate, ed.
The grammarian and lexicographer Buchanan fl. Authors % PoR 155 % Grand Total 292 England 136 88% 47% Scotland 15 10% 5% Ireland 8 5% 3% Wales 3 2% 1% America 5 3% 2% Foreign 7 4% 2% Total PoR 155 -- 53 % Table 5. On the role of booksellers and publishers see, in particular, and , respectively. David Manson 1726—1792 was born in the parish of Cairncastle in the northern county of Antrim, where he worked as schoolmaster and tutor. Interestingly, none of their 4 grammars was printed in Wales and, as mentioned earlier, only one author Jones was Welsh-born see further in.
In terms of frequency as plotted in below , London tops the list, hosting over 60 grammar writers ca. This study will be of interest to scholars working on syntax and grammar, corpus linguistics, historical linguistics and sociolinguistics. We only know the PoB of 3, namely the popular grammarian and lawyer Lindley Murray, born at Swatara, in the state of Pennsylvania; the lexicographer and grammarian Noah Webster, from West Hartford, state of Connecticut; and the Church of England clergyman and teacher Samuel Johnson, born in Guilford, Connecticut. The database also considers grammars prefixed to i dictionaries and encyclopaedias; ii works concerned with philosophy of the language; iii rhetoric and elocution treatises; iv letter-writing manuals; v polyglot grammars, if written to help readers acquire a knowledge of the English language; vi spelling books; and vii books of exercises. Beyond the British Isles, it was noticed that grammar-writing activities in America were concentrated on states located on the east coast; likewise the data regarding foreign countries concern France mainly. The final chapter places these results in a wider context and considers them in relation to past sociolinguistic work.
Few data have been gathered from Irish grammar writers green dots in : 3 were born in 3 different counties of southern Ireland, including the polymath schoolmaster Patrick Lynch from Clare Quin and the female writer and poet Dorothea Du Bois, from the capital Dublin; from northern Ireland we only know of the schoolmaster David Manson, of Antrim Cairncastle. Aggregate findings are balanced by analysing individuals and their varying participation in these processes. Frontmatter 1 Table of contents 7 Grammars, grammarians and grammar writing: An introduction 11 Background: Introduction 27 The eighteenth-century grammarians as language experts 31 Grammar writers in eighteenth-century Britain: A community of practice or a discourse community? Concerning the social extraction of writers, the quantity of material available for gentry and the upper-middle classes so far seems to outweigh greatly the quantity of material available from lower orders of society. I am ever grateful to María E. Any errors therein should be reported to them. Maps Association of British Counties. One of the major findings of the studies is that in most cases the overall pace of change was slow.
On the other hand, a fairly consistent sample of business letters have been included, on account of the light they may shed on the development of business correspondence as a genre. History of the Language Sciences, ed. A Scottish educationist and advocate of spelling reform, Elphiston was born in Edinburgh, then moved to London in the mid-century, where he set up a school first in Brompton and later in Kensington. Because of theological disputes, five years later, in 1784, Gentleman moved back to England, this time to live in Kidderminster, in south West Midlands county of Worcestershire. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
It is hoped that the findings here presented and the rich variety of domains covered in the database will spark off scholarly interest for further investigations in relation to any of its fields. Each of these categories comprises a range of different values; for example, Age distinguishes between children and adults, Gender between ladies and gentlemen, Instruction between schools and private use, and Specific Purpose records grammars for foreigners, business etc. Note that some of these sources had not been fully consulted at the time of writing this paper. The authors of this volume examine a variety of linguistic changes in a corpus of personal correspondence, including the auxiliary do, verbal -sand the progressive aspect, and they conclude that direct normative influence on them must have been minimal. Previously edited letters by literary figures have been deliberately excluded.