The S N2 Mechanism, The S N1 Mechanism, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of both mechanisms, Reactivity of Substrates alkyl halides in S N2 and S N1 Reactions, inductive effect, and hyperconjugation. If ΔG is positive, the spontaneous reaction is in the opposite direction. Summary of Common Nucleophilic Addition Reactions including those with water, alcohols, thiols, and amines. The larger the number of the energy level, the farther it is from the nucleus. The transactions are processed by Stripe and PayPayl gateways with all the security and privacy policies given the highest importance and priority. If pH is less than 7, the solution is acidic; if greater than 7, basic; if exactly 7, neutral. Summary Sheet: Reactions of Alkynes Just like for the alkenes, a summary and the mechanisms of all the reactions including, hydration, hydrohalogenation, hydroboration, reduction and oxidative cleavage, plus the acid-base chemistry of terminal alkynes and their synthetic applications.
Oxidation is the loss of electron s by a species, and reduction is the gain of electron s. Isotopes are atoms of same element same atomic number but with different mass numbers different number of neutrons in their nuclei. Check what is included in the content of the full package below. The formula is then written following the rules for either Type 1 or Type 2. Do not use lab handouts from previous quarters as they are updated frequently. Faraday's laws two laws of electrolysis relating the amount of substance to the quantity of electric charge.
Boyle's law the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure. Franklin provides you with a quick and dirty cheat sheet covering some of the most common grammar errors students make. A down and dirty guide to Algebra — in just 4 pages. Valence electrons are shown as dots in Lewis symbols of the elements. The mole is used in reaction stoichiometry to predict how much product can be made from a certain amount of reactant or how much reactant is required to produce a certain amount of product.
For a given reaction, only temperature can change the equilibrium constant, K. In most cases, only the electrons contained in the s and p orbitals are considered valence electrons. Summary Sheet: Nucleophilic Substitution — S N 1 an S N 2 An overview of Substitution Reactions, identifying the nucleophile, electrophile and the leaving group. Here is the much-needed to-the-point summary linking the Bond-line, Lewis and Condensed structures! The metal, having lost one or more electrons, forms a cation, an ion with a positive charge; the nonmetal, having gained one or more electrons, becomes an anion , an ion with a negative charge. Additionally, you will have the summary of preparing alcohols By Addition Reaction to Alkenes and Substitution Reactions. One mole of any gas occupies 22.
The charges are balanced by using coefficients to indicate the number of atoms. Summary Sheet: Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives This beautiful Summary Guide includes the Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution mechanism also referred to as an Addition-Elimination mechanism, the mechanism of Fischer esterification. Reading balanced equations are mole statements. Understanding how electrons are arranged in an atom is a building block of Chem I. The reaction of esters such as reversible hydrolysis under acidic and irreversible hydrolysis under basic conditions, transesterification and all the others with nucleophiles and reducing agents. One mole of a compound is 6. It is like reading a book with a much better focus getting straight to the point in an easy to follow structure.
Everything can be easily viewed or saved as a jpg. Oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously in redox reactions. Can you recommend any others? Multivalent metals are metals that have more than one possibility for the charge. Knowing the concepts of kinetics can help your understanding of why some reactions are fast and others slow and why some simple reactions are slow and other, more complex reactions are fast. Summary Sheet: Stereochemistry and Chirality Isomerism, Constitutional and Stereoisomers, Enantiomers and Diastereomers, Chirality, Absolute configuration by the R and S system, R and S in the Fischer projection, Optical Activity, Symmetry and chirality, Meso compounds 7.
Somebody uploaded the entire English Grammar for Dummies book. The ionic bond is the attraction between ions of opposite charge in a crystal. Hybridization and Hybrid Orbitals: understand the bond types and angles as well as a shortcut to quickly determining the sp 3, sp 2, and sp hybridization. My answer is because I like it for myself and I enjoy doing it when I get a little break from teaching. The Position of Equilibrium for an Acid—Base Reaction, Choosing an Acid or a Base to protonate and deprotonate a compound, the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation 5. Knowing this pattern is useful in many aspects of chemistry, including predicting the bonding situation of a particular atom and in the prediction of the geometry of a covalent compound. Yes, it is possible to summarize in one simple chart! Charles' law the volume of a gas varies directly with absolute temperature.
Alcohols in Substitution and Elimination Reactions. Summary Sheet: Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: the key reactions and alternative approaches to Changing the Common Substituents. Calculating Solubility Equilibrium Problems The solubility product equation is used to describe the equilibrium situation when a not-so-soluble salt is dissolving in water. Within each energy level is a volume of space where specific electrons are likely to be located. These spaces, called orbitals, are of different shapes, denoted by a letter s, p, d, f, g. The charge on one mole of electrons is called the Faraday.
If a subscript is added to a polyatomic ion, use parenthesis around the ion. Everything you need to know about Geometry. Chemical equilibrium exists when two opposing changes occur simultaneously at the same rate. Every little detail related to the topic is there and concepts are summarized in worked examples. Get the pdf while its still available.