Biobrás and Hidroservice worked out together and partially succeeded in a precarious scaling-up process. These firms specialized in the areas of health and agriculture, each one with different types of industrial organization and patterns of competition. In this connection, the clear identification of objectives and rapid results become indispensable characteristics. This resulted in the location of the industrial plant in the middle-sized city of Montes Claros, situated in a poor and relatively isolated region of Minas Gerais. The basic policy suggestion is to incorporate a more modern vision of innovation as a systemic process, and not only to tackle the university—industry relationships, but to address the overall configuration of production chains, such as the pharmaceutical innovation system, that use biotechnologies. There were 682 patent applications, of which 262 are abroad, and 462 are being processed abroad. In developing countries in general and in Uruguay in particular, two types of innovative opportunities, that is, opportunities to solve problems that are of importance to productive actors, are present in the most diverse settings: the need to cope with specificities, and the need to find ways of solving a given problem in a cheap enough way to be producible or accessible to potential customers.
The chapter is organized as follows. But in that case the recognition is to the original drug and to the original company. Jorge Núñez Jover studied chemistry, has a PhD in philosophy and is Director for Postgraduate Studies at the University of Havana. Interviews conducted in Cuba aimed at complementing and contrasting the analysis of the factors affecting innovation decisions by introducing a different national context. Back in Cuba, with interferon production technology in place, the group began working in a government facility turned laboratory.
The main areas of study by universities and research centres in the field of human biotechnology include the development of vaccines, medicines and diagnostic kits. In the focus is on four aspects of the development of the biotech sector in Latvia in the face of those challenges: the transition from a socialist to a capitalist economic system; interaction and power relations within the research system; outcomes and assessment of current policies; and a delineation of key factors facilitating or hindering the development of the biotech sector. Generally speaking, this scientific community took as its own the purposes of the new political project and has since then supported and helped shape the scientific strategies of the country. As these are state-owned companies, the benefits belong to the people. He has undertaken over 50 international, national and regional projects as research director in the fields of science and technology strategy and regional development and has published 10 books and over 100 articles in Chinese and English in the fields of science and technology strategy and policy, and regional development. The continued training of professors and researchers became a priority, as well as the search for advanced methods of quality control.
Then, we will show how the decisions were adopted to drive the development of the biotech industry. In policies and implementation there is a consensus across the globe that biotech, as an academic as well as an industrial field, holds a revolutionary potential. Biotechnology products have been increasingly used in vital areas such as health, agriculture and food production, environment, new materials and new sources of energy. In the pharmaceutical industry for instance, inputs for drug production are an important bottleneck as most of them are imported, thus the possibility of substituting them with locally produced inputs is crucial. Based on this finding, they are developing antibodies and vaccines to attack tumours. The motives for implementing various policies are often surprisingly homogeneous in their expressions, in spite of the fact that the underlying fundamentals differ considerably between countries.
Torres has said that in order to undertake these ambitious plans they relied on a core of Cuban professionals and a significant number of foreign researchers. In general, more important partnerships are those for getting funding and for the acquisition of inputs and equipment. Interviews were based on a semi-structured protocol, with slight variations depending on the type of actor. Different studies have been made on this topic including, Lage, 1994; Kaiser, 1998; Majoli, 2002; López et al. The state played a decisive role in its collaboration. Biotechnology in Europe: Background Information on Biotechnology Industry Characteristics and Policy Environment in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Russia and Sweden Thomas Reiss, Ralf Lindner and Ulrich Schmoch 10. Linkages between Bio-Innovation, Knowledge Production and Policy in Uruguay Isabel Bortagaray, Isarelis Perez Ones and Judith Sutz 4.
Cuban biotech innovative projects have a clear strategic goal: to sustain and further develop the scientific, technological and health policies trajectories that put the country among those in the world with better health indicators. Networks encourage connectivity between institutions, which becomes a factor of competitiveness and integration. However, in contrast to Pasteur, Fiocruz was connected to the public health system. Most recently they hired young biologists and biochemists on a permanent basis, while strengthening their relations with academic researchers in domains such as microbiology, virology, animal physiology and molecular biology. The same table also presents some indicators of output of these research groups in terms of number of publications and patents per group. This analysis will benefit from new information gathered from two sets of novel empirical work.
However, the case studies show that the innovative capability has not been equally well developed throughout the sector. Such a strategy is conditioned by a specialization in specific therapeutic classes. The target was then to cope successfully with finding a good solution to a new problem: gather the blood from the slaughterhouse and transform it into blood flour, rich in proteins and able to be used in the animal-feed industry. Other specialization areas were animal health and agri-biotechnology, fine chemicals and environmental biology. Biominas 2001 , Parque Nacional de Empresas de Biotecnologia, Belo Horizonte: Fundaçáo Biominas, December.
Within the higher education system training programmes have been established, based on the needs of the industry in areas like bio-informatics and biomedical engineering. Projects with Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia and Argentina are being evaluated at present. In the words of another interviewee, one does not find in the region a social capital set-up, only a reasonable number of producing firms and some policy programmes; what did not exist was a network of relationships. Biofactories respond to the need to make in vitro propagation efficiently and under full control. Sutz 2008 , Reforma Universitaria y Desarrollo, Montevideo: Tradinco Publishers. The other being Novo Nordisk. Vertical integration to the final product, insulin formulates, was made possible in 1983 thanks to several favourable factors, which enabled Biobrás to terminate the joint venture with Eli Lilly.
The Role of Product Development Partnerships for the Appropriation of Knowledge and Innovation in Biotechnology in Tanzania Emmarold Mneney, Bitrina D. This was an impressive result, knowing the difficulties small firms have in maintaining such internal activities. Biobrás emerged as a project with three partners. The novelty of products resulting from research is what allows market positions to be taken, which is called differentiation strategy. In the 2004 survey, 47. RedeSist is the Research Network on Local Production and Innovation Systems. This book explores how policies targeting public research institutions, such as universities, contribute to the appropriation of biotechnology through national innovation systems.